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Prof. Peljhan Committee chair

1.Realistic modeling and rendering of plant ecosystems. Oliver Deussen et al. 

    SIGGRAPH '98

Abstract .

Modeling and rendering of natural scenes with thousands of plants poses a number of problems. The terrain must be modeled and plants must be distributed throughout it in a realistic manner, reflecting the interactions of plants with each other and with their environment. Geometric models of individual plants, consistent with their positions withing the ecosystem, must be synthesized to populate the scene. The scene, which may consist of billion of primitives, must be rendered efficiently while incorporating the subtleties of lighting in a natural environment.

We have developed a system built around a pipeline of tools that address these tasks. The terrain is designed using an interactive graphic editor. Plant distribution is determined by hand (as one would do when designing a garden), by ecosystem simulation, or by a combination of both techniques. Given parametric procedural models of individual plants, the geometric complexity of the scene is reduced by approximate instancing, in which similar plants, groups of plants or plant organs are replaced by instances orf representative objects before the scene is rendered. This paper includes examples of visually rich scenes synthesized design the system.

2. Evolution of Controllers for Robot-Plant Bio-Hybrids: Simple Case Study Using a Model of Plant Growth and Motion. Mostafa Wahby el al.

Workshop Computational Intelligence, Dortmund, '15


In the evolutionary robotics methods of evolutionary computation are applied to evolve robot controllers. We are instigating how distributed robot system and group of biological plants can be tightly coupled to generate synergies and finally result in a bio-hybrid system. We want to create co-dependent and self-organized system with closely linked symbiotic relationships where plants support robots, for example, by providing scaffolding and robots and direct plant growth toward desired areas. 

3. flora robotica -Mixed Societies of Symbiotic Robot - Plant Bio-Hybrids. Heiko Haman, Mostafa Wahby el al.

IEEE Symposium on Artificial Life (IEEE ALIFE '15)


Besides the life-as-it-could-be drive of artificial life research there is also the concept of extending natural life by creating hybrids or mixed societies that are built from both natural and artificial components. In this paper, we motivate and present the research program of the project flora robotic. We present our concepts of control, hardware design, modeling, and human interaction along with preliminary experiments. Our objective is to develop and to investigate closely linked symbiotic relationships between robots and natural plants and to explore the potentials of a plant-robot society able to produce architectural artifacts and living spaces. These robot-plant bio-hybrids create synergies that allow for new functions of plants and robots. They also create novel design opportunities for an architecture that fuses the design and construction phase. The bio-hybrids is an example of mixed societies between 'hard artificial' and 'wet natural life', which enables an interaction between natural and artificial ecologies. They form an embodied, self-organizing, and distributed cognitive system which is meaningful architectural structures. A key idea is to assign equal roles to robots and plants in this project has the objective to create a bio-hybrid system with a defined function and application - growing architectural artifacts.

4. Tree Growth Visualization. Lars Linsen el al.

The Journal of WSCH, VOl.13, WSCG 2005 January 31 - February 4, 2005.


In computer graphics, models describing the fractal branching structure of trees typically exploit the modularity of tree structures. The models are based on local production rules, which are applied iteratively and simultaneously to create a complex branching system. The objective is to generate three-dimensional scenes of often many realistic looking and non-identical trees. Our goal, instead, is to visualize the growth of a prototypical tree of certain species. It is supposed to look realistic but, more importantly, has to confirm with real, measured data. We construct a tree model being similar to existing ones and extend it by coupling the branching production rules with dynamic tree-growth rules. The latter is based on equations derived from measured street tree data from London Plane tree (Platanus acerifolia) such as tree height, diameter-at-breast-height, crown height, crown diameter, and leaf are. We map the global, measure parameters to the local parameters used in the tree model. The mapping couples knowledge from plant biology and arboriculture, as we deal with trees that are trained and manipulated to achieve desired forms and functions within highly urbanized environments.

5. Techno-Ecologies II. Acoustic Space #12


A Garden of Machines: the emergence of robotic art. Lauren Fenton

This paper proposes that robotic art understood as both computational and situated in space, frequently involving interactive and Newton elements - is emerging as the product of a re-negotiated/renewed relationship between the spheres of art, urban design,and popular entertainment. Drawing on actor-network theory, Chris Slater uses the term "entanglement" to designate the way human and technological beings function as co-performers and relational entities both in art practice and in the culture at large. This essential interpretation of technology brings a new perspective to our relationship with the designed object, and with the art object in particular. In this context, to what extent does the increasing ubiquity of human/technological entanglement allow us to envision a paradigm shift in our understanding of art's role - no longer as an autonomous sphere interfacing with a wider social context but as a co-participant in the social day today. Robotic art's emphasis on situational technological experiences effectively puts it at the forefront of the digital transformation and environment also heralded by developments such as ubiquitous computing, the urban screens and interactive/responsive architecture. By thus potentially re-imaging urban space robotic art not only merges digital and physician spheres of aesthetic action, but also joins in popular tradition that includes the spectacular attractions of 19th central visual culture. The work of arts Usamn Haque, Heh, Simon Penny and Bill Vorn serve to anchor this discussion.

6. Reflection of a Theory of Organisms. Walter M. Elsasser

Screen Shot 2016-08-15 at 4.48.44 PM.png

Chapter 2. Some Biological Theory

The author questions the fundamental gap between Cartesian and current scientific research and philosophical methodology. He addresses that Descartes' formulation of a dualistic philosophy has two basic substances: matter substance and mind substance, however, he insists that this dualistic formal expression of the distinction between matter and consciousness, in the fact, doesn't fit to explain the modern biology. The philosopher is no longer a deep thinker anymore, the vast difference in tradition and methods as between biology and the physical sciences the connection between the two has never been sufficiently clarified since the mutual distance is too large. The author claims that to bridge this distance, it requires certain hypotheses since it seems well-nigh inconceivable that the distance will be eventually bridges simply by the accumulation of data both sides. The possible molecular state as allows by quantum mechanics can be the suitable hypotheses to solve this problem.

Prof. Legrady  Department Chair, Committee.

1. The Structure of Art. Jack Burnham.

Screen Shot 2016-07-31 at 4.12.43 PM.png

Chapter 1.

This chapter is to recapitulate the steps leading toward a structural definition of art. All customs in a society fill specific functions and acts as supplementary "languages." He sees the mind as receiving and transmitting experiences in a coded form which unconsciously adheres to established social conventions. In painting, colors exist in painting only because of the prior existence of colored objects and beings: and only through a process of abstraction can be separated from their natural substances and treated as elements in an independent system. Art is simultaneously connected to two systems: the first is based on a viewer's capacity to organize sense experiences, and the second is a learned system of plastic values.

2, 3. Vision and Painting. Norman Bryson.

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Chapter 2. The Essential Copy

The author brings two theories to support his opinion on painting, Karl Popper, a scientist, and philosopher, who explains the work of scientist. According to his theory, it a continuous cycle of experiential testing. First, there is an initial problem (P1) that science is to explore. A trial solution (TS) is proposed, as the hypothesis. An experimental situation is devised in which the strengths and weaknesses of the hypothesis can be submitted to falsification: the stage of error elimination (EE). The resulting situation reveals new problems (P2). The other one, by Gombrich, an English art historian, insists that the process of painting is a painter's challenge to the traditional style. In Giotto's example, tradition suggests a particular formula or schema for its transcription onto canvas. Giotto tests the schema against actual observation. The observation reveals that Cimabue-schema (the tradition) is inadequate to the empirical finds. The modified schema in turns enters the repertoire of schema and will in due course be subject to similar tests an elaboration as its predecessor. Finally, the author tells us that the schema or process of science and art experiment is similar in case of improvement from previous hypotheses that aginst the scientist and painter's perspective.

Chapter 3. Perceptualism.

Before the painter sees the real nature, the author believes that there is a social formation in producing the codes of recognition that activates the image on the painting, this code of schema interferes pure observation of the painter. He borrows a case of John Constable, an English painter. From the Gombrich's Art and Illusion, Constable tried to remove obfuscating schema that has collected over generations within the genre in his paintings. Every culture and period have this kind of traditions and systems. Artists strive to break these rules.

This system is constructed by the link between sign on painting and object in the real world. In case of Giotto and Duccio, the former (actually the later in history) challenged the previous system used in painting. Giotto redirected the connected meanings between symbols in the picture and the real world.

4. Image - Music - Text. Roland Barthes.

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Chapter 2. The Rhetoric of the Image

To the general ideology correspond significance of connotation which are specified according to the chosen substance. These signifies will be called connotators and the set of connotators is a rhetoric, rhetoric thus appearing as the signifying aspect of ideology. Rhetorics inevitably vary by their substance but not necessarily by their form; it is even probably that there exist a single rhetorical form, common for instance to dream, literature, and image. Thus the rhetoric of the image (that is to say, the classification of this connotators) is specific to the extent that is subject to the physical constraints of vision (different, for example, from phonatory constraints) but general to the extent that the "figure" are never more than formal relations of elements.

5. The Science of Art: Optical Themes in Western Art from Brunelleschi to Seurat. Martin Kemp.

Screen Shot 2016-08-15 at 3.56.19 PM.png

Chapter 4. Seeing, Knowing and Creating

In this chapter, the author brings several scientists and painters who strived to create their own systems that transforming a three-dimensional world into a flat space, such as paper or canvas. Philippe de La Hire, a painter in the eighteenth-century from France discussed how we use our eye to judge depth and we rely on size and strength of color to measure the depth. Camper and Bouguer analyzed how the colors are distorted by distance. Artists, philosophers, and scientists in the eighteen-century thought that we are not actually see the physical impacts in the eye that evoke sensation, the nature cannot simply be identified by our sensation. We need an interpretation to understand the nature. This means that we can only 'see' the interpretative mental symbol of the object and not the pattern on physical stimuli.

6. Pathways to Korean Culture. Burglind Jungmann.


Chapter 8. The Question of 'True Scenery' : Jeong Seon

Jeong Seon is the most famous painter of Korean art history, he was the first person who created art movement know as 'true scenery' or true view' within his unique personal artistic style. The previous painting culture was under the influence of Chinese tradition which was transforming an ideal space of nature from the painter's imagination. Since Joseon dynasty was the summit of prosperity, there was travel culture in the aristocrat. Jeong Seon traveled the entire country to describe the real nature for King Jeongjo. This was the opportunity to break traditoanl schema followed through traditioion in the Asian painting. More than that, it was not clear, but he was the person who tried to bring the western perspective style into the Korean painting, this influenced to his disciples to challenge the traditional Chinese Zhe school style. 

Prof. Chang Committee.

1. Sustainable Media: Critical Approaches to Media and Environment

Screen Shot 2016-08-15 at 4.55.07 PM.png

Chapter 12. Think Galactically, Act Microscopically? Alenda Chang.

The author presents games at both an aesthetic and an ethical means to engage in world design and management, on especially well suited to exploring questions of sustainable action and scope. Human agency is dramatically altering the very scale of events even as human perception has proven itself blind to catastrophic change that occurs in geologic time. This is because that scientists usually design ecological studies on scales appropriate to human experience and perception, rather than the species or subjects in question. She thinks computer simulations can re-calibrate our instinct across vast scales of both space and time. Altough games inevitalby participate in flows of material and capital and so-called attention econimies that place them squarely within the ongoing debate over local, as oppsed to global, modes of thinking and living digital games can obviate the perceived choice through multiscalr play.

2. Gaming: Essays on Algorithmic Culture. Alexader R. Galloway.

Screen Shot 2016-08-15 at 5.18.23 PM.png

Chapter 1. Gaming Action, Four Moments.

Video games are not just images or stories or play or games but actions - the author outlines four-past system for understanding action in video games: gaming is a pure process made knowable in the mechanic resonance of diegetic machines acts; gaming is a subjective algorithm, a code intervention exerted from both within gameplay and without gameplay in the form of the nondiegetic operator act; and gaming is the play of the structure, a generative agitation between inside outside effected through the nondiegetic machine act.

move act                        Diegetic ambience act 

fire  machinima


Operator Machine

Configure power-up

menu act game over

paus e      nondiegetic                       network lag

3. Developer's Dilemma: The Secret World of Videogame Creators (Inside Technology). Casey O'Donnell.

Screen Shot 2016-08-15 at 5.18.05 PM.png

World 4. Interactive Game Development Tools.

As a game developer, the author brings the hardships and challenging parts while he was working in the huge game company. He tries to the narrow gaps between each individual in a game team with the explanations by different positions. Game developers by and large have been lost in their ability to really reflect, documents or talk about experiences that would historically their activities. He points out many problems that produce inefficiency, then suggests that tools and pipelines must be constructed in such a way that each developer can do what they do well, rather than stepping on one another's toes.

4. Works of Games: On the Aesthetics of Games and Art (Playful Thinking). John Sharp.

Screen Shot 2016-08-15 at 5.23.41 PM.png

Chapter 4. Artist' Game

The game art and artgame examples in this book demonstrates how games are approached in radically different ways by different communities of practice, and even within those communities, there is a good deal of variation. A useful framework for thinking about the differing considerations of games as an art form comes from the philosopher John Hospers and what he calls thick and thin aesthetics. Thin aesthetics are those that focus solely on the formal values of a work, while thick aesthetics are those that take into account the work's place in more complex cultural contexts. Game art (art made from games) uses games for the thin aesthetics of symbolic expression in service of the thick aesthetics of conceptual exploration. Artgames take a more conservative approach of emphasizing representational expression in a thick way, at the same time that they thinly explore the conceptually and critically focused aesthetics of contemporary art.

5. Video Game Spaces: Image, Play, and Structure in 3D worlds. Michael Nitsche.

Screen Shot 2016-08-15 at 5.28.17 PM.png

The author explains the development of virtual camera technique from the early stage and compares the use of camera skills between film and game. The task of the filmmaker is to the viewer pose a visual question, and then answer it for him. A space is neither ambiguous nor flat, but navigating its depth becomes an important element of a gameplay. A virtual camera is a mathematical entity, not a physical one; it does not record the light emitted or reflected by a certain event, but rather creates a projection of an imagined viewpoint in the monitor. A fundamental reason cameras in games are limited in their performance is that the forms of presentation of video game spaces have to support their functionality. Unlike tradition film, which tells a predefined story without interactive access to the contest, cameras in video games deliver the cinematic meditations of events, as they are instantiated by the interaction in the virtual world.

6. Gameplay Mode: War, Simulation, and Technoculture. Patrick Crogan.

Screen Shot 2016-08-15 at 5.30.01 PM.png

Chapter 3. Logistical Space

The author brings a brief history of the virtual simulation technology from its beginning. During World War II, technology cultural and political transformations were invented as a result of the enormous financial investment and technical effort to make flight simulations into an effective training and research technology for the U.S. Air force. With the advent of video cameras in the early 1950s, real-time visual feedback for simulated flight became possible. The technical advances made in this effort have been instrumental in the proliferation real-time online simulation based activities in both military and commercial spheres. 

The transformation of a nation into logistical potential leads to the transformation of the reality of the world of nations into a virtual reality. Becasue of this fact, the traditional elements and relationships of sociopolotical and cultrual reality become increasingly virtualized.

List of Articles
No. Subject Author Date Views
10 JeongSeon Project Demo Image file admin 2018.03.10 12423
» QE file admin 2016.08.17 22838
8 MAT 201B - Computing with Media Data file admin 2015.07.10 28951
7 Game Project admin 2015.04.17 27836
6 Data Visualization (M259 Visualizing Information class project) part 3 file admin 2015.03.31 31807
5 Data Visualization (M259 Visualizing Information class project) part 2 admin 2015.03.31 28758
4 Data Visualization (M259 Visualizing Information class project) part 1. file admin 2015.03.31 28909
3 test file admin 2015.03.30 24084
2 Arts & Engineering/Science Research class project file admin 2015.01.04 31327
1 processing code admin 2014.10.06 29006
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